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Dilip K. Das succintly covers the principal normative and positive strands that one needs to be properly familiar with in the area of economic globalization.
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Globalization: A Closer Look

Sign in via your Institution. Sign in with your library card. Search within Globalization: a contested concept 2. Globalization and history: is globalization a new phenomenon? The economic dimension of globalization 4. The political dimension of globalization 5. The cultural dimension of globalization 6.

The ecological dimension of globalization 7. Ideologies of globalization: market globalism, justice globalism, religious globalisms 8. Global crises and the future of globalization End Matter References Index. Related Content 1.


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Globalization: a contested concept 6. The ecological dimension of globalization 8. Global crises and the future of globalization 4. The political dimension of globalization 2. Quick reference and more consensus economy globalization neoliberalism World Bank. Global crises and the future of globalization References Index. The economic dimension of globalization Manfred Steger. Preface to the third edition List of abbreviations List of illustrations List of maps List of figures 1.

All rights reserved. Sign in to annotate. Delete Cancel Save. Cancel Save. All of this allegedly justifies the size, concentration and vertical integration of firms. This is the schema that has prevailed in the cultural sector, which has the highest level of economic growth of any and which is displacing aerospace as America's largest exporter. It is not surprising that corporate cultural interests have sought to make the opening of markets their top priority in the WTO and to insist that the rules that apply to merchandise trade should apply to the "cultural market.

Oligopolized structures like those of the media would be questionable in any economic sector, including electronics, but it is unacceptable in the cultural sphere. This is the case from an economic point of view since we are dealing with industries with great economies of scale: a film costs no more to produce for a million spectators than for ten thousand.

It is above all true because the media don't produce ordinary products, but concepts, values and visions of the world that circulate directly and continuously over the airwaves and screens of the entire planet. Thus the term "industries of the imagination" P. Flichy rather than cultural industries better captures the fact that culture cannot be reduced to the exchange of digital bits and entertainment products, even if all of this takes place and evolves in a universe of communications.

David Putnam, former president of Columbia Pictures, noted that "some people are trying to convince us that films and television are economic sectors like any other.

Economic Dimensions of Globalization | SpringerLink

This is not true. This is why, as with all oligopolies, large inequalities in cultural exchanges are unacceptable. If countries can invoke the defense of national industry to impose quotas on importing steel and agree to "voluntary restrictions" on the export of Japanese cars to Europe on economic grounds, are not measures to ensure minimal reciprocity in cultural matters a fortiori justifiable, particularly since values are at stake.

This is not simply a matter of commercial imbalance, but primarily of relationships between cultural and social values with impacts that cannot be overestimated. Researchers at Columbia University, reporting a seventeen year study conducted on families, concluded that television plays a significant role in the development of aggression in adolescents and adults.

Defending cultural diversity seems today to be a recognized objective and negotiating position for the EU, despite divergent national positions. Is this any different from the "cultural exception" of which M-O. Padis asked whether it was a "way to exclude goods that belong in different universes of value from the market or to organize the market in ways to make the French cultural industry competitive. This idea has had the merit of allowing states to abstain from commitments to liberalize cultural markets within the WTO. Without abandoning it, we need to question its effectiveness with regard to the goals that have been claimed for it.

Can the "cultural exception," a barrier without real legal weight, work as a Maginot line in the face of the technological progress and liberalization of telecommunications markets that is well under way within the WTO. These convergent trends create new constraining conditions that will render national measures beside the point and have even greater consequences than new negotiations on services.


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What can a small producer do when faced by a conglomerate that can open a film on screens in one country in a day? Tying the defense of cultural diversity to the power of states to define their own cultural policies neglects the fact that national policies cannot be effective if they are not backed by some instance that can govern trans-national cultural exchanges effectively.

It is thus clear that the future of cultural pluralism will be decided at transnational levels. It is important to abandon the political schizophrenia allowing governments to support a powerless Unesco declaration defending cultural diversity while they simultaneously sdopt WTO measures leading to cultural liberalization.


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  4. Geo-cultural issues need to be put on the same level as geo-political and geo-ececonomic ones. We need to extract relationships between societies and cultures from the economism that today dominates the world system.

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    We need, therefore, to formulate goals to allow us to go beyond "cultural exceptions" and affirm the primacy of the social-cultural dimensions of human exchange. What is most important to defend, the exceptional status of cultural goods, the maintenance of the status quo in relationships between governments and audiovisual producers, or the effective definition of conditions promoting real pluralism?

    To respond clearly it is useful to make a distinction between diversity and pluralism.

    Economic Dimension

    Diversity is the premise of everything that lives, including human beings, one of the givens of nature. The physical ecosystem is something that evolves. The human ecosystem, in contrast, is the product of choice. Cultural pluralism is not a reified thing, nor is it a "global public good.

    Defending and promoting cultural pluralism is thus not defending a past and impossible status quo, cultural relativism or exceptional rules for cultural goods and services. Instead it is defending a reasoned expansion of the right to exercise individual and collective choices in conditions of sufficient autonomy in the absence of external constraints or conditions limiting its scope, including the possibilities for producing and exchanging diverse forms of cultural expression.

    What is Globalization?

    This is a primordial issue for human development, a universal struggle whose adversary is a hegemony that is unacceptable when its touches the imaginary or seeks to instrumentalize cultures in the service power. Cultural pluralism is a fundamental political principle of world order and thereby one of the priorities of global governance.

    How can geo-cultural matters of cultural pluralism be given the place they deserve in global governance? Given the role of the media in interactions between cultures, how can we reconcile the utilitarian logic of markets with the logics of identities in an exchange regime adapted to actual global dynamics? How can we reconcile the roles of different actors in the cultural sphere? How can we prepare and legitimate the decisions that we need to take on such trans-national issues?

    Defending cultural diversity seems today to be a recognized objective and negotiating position for the EU, despite divergent national positions. Is this any different from the "cultural exception" of which M-O. Padis asked whether it was a "way to exclude goods that belong in different universes of value from the market or to organize the market in ways to make the French cultural industry competitive. This idea has had the merit of allowing states to abstain from commitments to liberalize cultural markets within the WTO.

    Without abandoning it, we need to question its effectiveness with regard to the goals that have been claimed for it. Can the "cultural exception," a barrier without real legal weight, work as a Maginot line in the face of the technological progress and liberalization of telecommunications markets that is well under way within the WTO. These convergent trends create new constraining conditions that will render national measures beside the point and have even greater consequences than new negotiations on services. What can a small producer do when faced by a conglomerate that can open a film on screens in one country in a day?

    Tying the defense of cultural diversity to the power of states to define their own cultural policies neglects the fact that national policies cannot be effective if they are not backed by some instance that can govern trans-national cultural exchanges effectively.

    THE CONFLICTS OF GLOBALIZATION

    It is thus clear that the future of cultural pluralism will be decided at transnational levels. It is important to abandon the political schizophrenia allowing governments to support a powerless Unesco declaration defending cultural diversity while they simultaneously sdopt WTO measures leading to cultural liberalization.

    Geo-cultural issues need to be put on the same level as geo-political and geo-ececonomic ones. We need to extract relationships between societies and cultures from the economism that today dominates the world system. We need, therefore, to formulate goals to allow us to go beyond "cultural exceptions" and affirm the primacy of the social-cultural dimensions of human exchange. What is most important to defend, the exceptional status of cultural goods, the maintenance of the status quo in relationships between governments and audiovisual producers, or the effective definition of conditions promoting real pluralism?